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The effect of surface tension on shrinkage
Surface free energy and surface tension
To make a system form a new surface requires a certain amount of energy to the system, polypropylene wax quality such as blowing up soap bubbles or applying paint on the substrate.
The internal molecular surface tension of a surface molecule refers to the formation or expansion of a unit area
The minimum energy required for the surface, that is, the free energy per unit area. The force on the molecular meter located in the liquid is different from the force on the molecule on the surface of the liquid. The internal molecules are attracted by the surrounding molecules from all directions with the same force as shown in Figure 8-1. The surface tension concept diagram is symmetrical and balanced. The surface molecules are attracted by the gravitational force from the liquid and gaseous molecules. The force experienced is asymmetrical. The gravity of the liquid phase is greater than the gravity of the gas phase. The surface molecules have higher free energy. The surface free energy of the system is minimized. Therefore, the surface tension reduces the surface area of the liquid, driving the rough or uneven liquid surface to flow into a smooth surface, reducing the surface free energy. This kind of situation that tends to the lowest surface energy is the equilibrium orientation of the molecules on the liquid surface, and the molecular segments that minimize the surface tension tend to be oriented on the surface. If there is more than one type of liquid in the system, then those liquid molecular segments that produce the lowest surface energy appear on the surface of the liquid.
Surface tension is expressed by the force on a unit length line perpendicular to the surface. Its SI unit is mN/m, and the SI unit of surface free energy is mJ/m². Surface tension has the same dimension and value as surface energy.
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