The fabric is made of interlaced yarns perpendicular to each other, and the interlaced structure of two systems of yarns can also be seen on the surface of the fabric. By pulling the fabric in two directions by hand, it can be found that the elongation ability is very small and it is not easy to deform. If you cut a small piece of fabric with a knife, you can tear off individual yarns from the fabric.
Knitted fabrics are made of a system of yarns that are intertwined with each other. The thread structure can also be seen on the surface of the fabric, and the deformation ability in the longitudinal and transverse directions is large. Weft knitted fabrics allow the thread to be drawn into yarn. Neither warp-knitted nor weft-knitted fabrics can draw yarns like woven fabrics.
In addition to woven fabrics and knitted fabrics, there are also non-woven fabrics that are directly made of fiber nets without textile processing. The surface of the fabric can be seen in the form of fiber nets. There are no yarns in the fabric, only fibers , can be distinguished by the naked eye.
Identification of the front and back of the fabric
Identifying the front and back of a fabric is very important for garment production. If the front and back sides are not strictly distinguished during sewing, it will cause defects such as color difference, disordered texture, disordered flower shape and different luster, which will directly affect the quality of clothing. The basis for identifying the front and back sides is as follows:
① Generally, the front of the fabric is relatively flat, smooth and meticulous. The front of the printed fabric has a clear pattern and eye-catching color; the front of the decorative fabric is rich and fully displays the characteristics of the pattern. .
For example, the embossed pattern fabric has obvious concave and convex patterns on the front, and floating long lines on the reverse.
From the perspective of organization, there is no difference between the front and back of the plain weave, and most of them are distinguished from the surface cleanliness, obvious patterns and smoothness. The twill weave has a diagonal line on the surface, and the direction of the diagonal line on the front and back is about 90°.
Generally, the fabric is always designed to have clear oblique lines on the front, full lines, and poor definition of the oblique lines on the reverse side; in addition, the twill weave woven with strands generally has a right slash on the front, premium textile wax, while the twill woven with single yarn is often left slanted.
There are two kinds of satin weave: warp satin and weft satin, but no matter which one, the satin has better gloss on the front, as smooth as silk, while the reverse is dull and not smooth, and there are obvious differences between the front and back.
The front warp and weft yarns of heavy warp, heavy weft and double-layer fabrics are better than the back, and the front warp and weft density is also higher.
The fleece fabric has fluff or fur on the front.
The front side of the leno fabric is clear and flat, and the reverse side has a rougher appearance.
On the front of the knitted fabric, the ⭕ column is above the ⭕ arc.
③ From the selvedge, the front of the fabric is generally flat, and sometimes the selvedge is rolled outward. Shuttleless looms such as water jet and rapier looms have fibers formed by cutting the yarn on the reverse selvedge.
④From the packaging point of view, the packaging surface of each cloth roll is the reverse side, and the double-width woolen cloth is folded in half, and the folded inside is the front side. The trademark of domestic products is affixed to the back of the head, and the back of the tail is stamped with the date of manufacture and inspection stamp, and the opposite of export products.
Identification of the warp and weft of the fabric
When nesting and cutting, the warp and weft directions must be distinguished. It is usually identified according to the following 10 aspects.
①The direction along the selvage is the warp direction;
②The warp yarns of the grey fabric are generally sized, but the weft yarns are not sized; ③Usually the warp yarn density (the number of warp yarns in 10cm) is larger, and the weft yarn density is smaller;
④Usually the warp yarn is thinner and the weft yarn is thicker;
⑤ For staple fiber yarn fabrics, usually the warp yarn has a large twist, and the weft yarn has a small twist;
⑥Interwoven fabrics generally have better warp raw materials and higher strength. If the strands and single yarns are intertwined, the warp yarns are generally strands and the weft yarns are single yarns;
⑦Fleece fabrics are mostly raised, while corduroy is a weft raised fabric;
⑧ In leno fabrics, the warp yarns are twisted with each other; ⑨ From the weaving defects on the surface of the fabric, reeds, warp willows, etc. are warp defects, while bright silk and thinning are weft defects;
⑩ Sometimes the warp and weft direction of the fabric can also be judged from the printed flower shape and the direction of the animal.
When making general clothing, it is always arranged along the length of the body in the warp direction. Therefore, identifying the warp and weft directions of fabrics is very important for clothing production, especially for those who are engaged in clothing design.
Fabric Density Analysis
The fabric density seems to only indicate the density of the yarn, in fact it also has an important influence on the inherent quality of the fabric.
The density of the fabric is expressed by the number of yarns in the 10cm fabric, so the density mirror can be directly used for density analysis. When there is no density mirror, the fabric of unit length or width can be cut, directly split, and then converted into the number of yarns within 10cm.
The density of the knitted fabric is the vertical and horizontal density, and the density mirror is generally used, or direct counting, but the counting standard is the number of rows or columns within 5cm.
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